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Cwmcarn
Population 500
OS grid reference ST219935
Principal area Caerphilly
Ceremonial county Gwent
Constituent country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town NEWPORT
Postcode district NP11
Dialling code 01495
Police Gwent
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
European Parliament Wales
UK Parliament Islwyn
List of places: UKWalesCaerphilly

Cwmcarn [1] is a village [2] in the Ebbw valley in south Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire that grew significantly with 19th century coal mining. It is now well known for its extensive mature forestry and greenery that attracts thousands of visitors and mountain biking enthusiasts each year.

Contents

[edit] Pre-industrial history

Significant settlement at Cwmcarn came with Bronze Age migration of local tribes from the Gwent levels to the uplands of Mynydd y Grug, Mynydd Machen and Mynydd Maen (Twmbarlwm) and led to a later Iron Age (900-55 BC) hill fort to be constructed by the Silures on Twmbarlwm.

Roman forces took control of most of SE Brittania in 43 AD but then took a further 25 years to gain control of the present day South Wales valleys. Roman control remained established until full scale withdrawel in the 5th century AD when the Kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing were established. Gwent was defined as the land between the River Usk and the River Wye and Glywysing, the land between the River Usk and the River Tawe. Cwmcarn, located where the Carn and Ebbw river valleys meet, being situated within the Welsh Kingdom of Glywysing.

The name of Cwmcarn came about in 942 when Llywarch ap Cadogan gave Villa Treficarn Pont (estate near the bridge over the Carn) to Bishop Wulfrith with King Cadell's guarantee i.e the place where the Carn meets the Ebbw (now Cwmcarn).

Following the Norman invasion of Wales the separate townships of Abercarn, Cwmcarn and Newbridge were given a manorial title of Abercarne. The three townships were also within the boundaries of the ancient parish of Mynyddislwyn and remained therein up until comparatively recent times.

[edit] Economic activity

[edit] Coal mining

Cwmcarn Forest Drive in the spring. Looking towards the Graig.
Cwmcarn Forest Drive in the spring. Looking towards the Graig.

Cwmcarn lies at the south-eastern edge of the South Wales coalfield. The Cwmcarn Colliery development started in 1836 as a single 180ft downshaft for the nearby Prince of Wales Colliery at Abercarn operated by the Monmouthshire Iron and Coal Company. The first shaft sunk at Cwmcarn was the Abercarn No.6. It was a shallow shaft, just 180ft deep, sunk to the Rock (or Tillery) seam by the Monmouthshire Iron and Coal Company in 1836. The shafts were 843ft deep to the Black Vein. The second shaft was excavated by the Ebbw Vale Steel Iron & Coal Company to target the deeper No.4 Steam and Black Vein seams. The colliery was run as an individual unit until it was later acquired by Partridge Jones and John Paton and Company in 1935. It was closed by the National Coal Board in November 1968 and the site was cleared after becoming uneconomical to run.

The Cwmcarn Forest Drive [3] now runs over the shafts of the colliery and a relics of colliery buildings can still be seen on the slope above the old shaft. The present day lake that is stocked by the Cwmcarn Angling Association was originally down stream of the colliery's washery.

[edit] Manufacturing

A telecoms factory located between the Ebbw River and the A467 road was part of the British Post Office and British Telecom before being sold to Nortel, STC and more recently Solectron. The factory closed during spring 2007.

[edit] Tourism & mountain biking

To the east of the village of Cwmcarn is the popular Cwmcarn Forest Drive, a popular 7 mile drive through hills and forests [4] on the flanks of the mountain of Twmbarlwm which is operated by the Forestry Commission. The area has seen significant recent development as the world-class Y Mynydd Mojo DH Track mountain biking trail is attracting an increased volume of visitors. A new £2 million visitor centre has been opened.

[edit] External links


Coordinates: 51.63486° N 3.12987° W


(Source: Wikipedia)
 
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