The etymology of London remains a mystery. The earliest etymological explanation can be attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae. The name is described as originating from King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. This was slurred into Kaerludein and finally London. Few modern sources support this theory. Many other theories have been advanced over the centuries, mostly deriving it from Welsh or British, but occasionally from Anglo-Saxon or even Hebrew.
In 1998, Richard Coates, a linguistics professor, criticised these suggestions, and proposed that the name derives from the pre-Celtic *plowonida, which roughly means "a river too wide to ford". He suggested that the Thames running through London was given this name, and the inhabitants added the suffix -on or -onjon to their settlement. Proto-Indo-European *p was regularly lost in proto-Celtic, and through linguistic change, the name developed from Plowonidonjon to Lundonjon, then contracted to Lundein or Lundyn, Latinised to Londinium, and finally borrowed by the Anglo-Saxons as Lundene.
 Early London
Although there is some evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans in AD 43 as Londinium, following the Roman conquest of Britain. This Londinium lasted for just seventeen years. Around AD 61, the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed this first London, burning it to the ground. The next, heavily-planned incarnation of the city prospered and superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in AD 100. At its height in the 2nd century AD, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. The city started a slow decline in the 3rd century because of trouble in the Roman Empire, and by the 5th century the city was largely abandoned.
By the 600s, the Anglo-Saxons had created a new settlement called Lundenwic approximately 1,000 yards (1 km) upstream from the old Roman city, around what is now Covent Garden. There was likely a harbour at the mouth of the River Fleet for fishing and trading, and this trading grew until the city was overcome by a Viking raid and razed to the ground in 851. A Viking occupation twenty years later was short-lived. Alfred the Great, the new King of England, established peace and moved the settlement within the defensive walls of the old Roman city (then called Lundenburgh). The original Saxon city of Lundenwic became Ealdwic ("old city"), a name surviving to the present day as Aldwych, which is in the modern City of Westminster.
Subsequently, under the control of various English kings, London once again prospered as an international trading centre and political arena. However, Viking raids began again in the late 10th century, and reached a head in 1013 when they besieged the city under Danish King Canute and forced English King Ethelred the Unready to flee. In a retaliatory attack, Ethelred's army achieved victory by pulling down London Bridge with the Danish garrison on top, and English control was re-established.
Canute took control of the English throne in 1017, controlling the city and country until 1042, when his death resulted in a reversion to Anglo-Saxon control under his pious stepson Edward the Confessor, who re-founded Westminster Abbey and the adjacent Palace of Westminster. By this time, London had become the largest and most prosperous city in England, although the official seat of government was still at Winchester.
The City of London (corresponding closely to the area of Roman London) together with Westminster, comprised the core of the built-up area in early mediaeval times.
 Norman and medieval London
- See also: Fortifications of London
Map of London in 1300, showing the medieval boundaries of the City of London
Following a victory at the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror, the then Duke of Normandy, was crowned King of England in the newly-finished Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. William granted the citizens of London special privileges, while building a castle in the south-east corner of the city to keep them under control. This castle was expanded by later kings and is now known as the Tower of London, serving first as a royal residence and later as a prison.
In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall proved the basis of a new Palace of Westminster, the prime royal residence throughout the Middle Ages. Westminster became the seat of the royal court and government (persisting until the present day), while its distinct neighbour, the City of London, was a centre of trade and commerce and flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. Eventually, the adjacent cities grew together and formed the basis of modern central London, superseding Winchester as capital of England in the 12th century.
London grew in wealth and population during the Middle Ages. In 1100 its population was around 18,000, by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000. However disaster struck during the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population. Apart from the invasion of London during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, London remained relatively untouched by the various civil wars during the Middle Ages, such as the first and second Barons' Wars and the Wars of the Roses.
After the successful defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, political stability in England allowed London to grow further. In 1603, James VI of Scotland came to the throne of England, essentially uniting the two countries. His enactment of harsh anti-Catholic laws made him unpopular, and an assassination attempt was made on 5 November 1605—the well-known Gunpowder Plot.
Plague caused extensive problems for London in the early 17th century, culminating in the Great Plague in 1665–1666.This was the last major outbreak in England, possibly thanks to the disastrous fire of 1666. The Great Fire of London broke out in the original City and quickly swept through London's wooden buildings, destroying large swathes of the city.A first hand narrative of both plague and fire was provided by Sir Samuel Pepys. Rebuilding took over ten years largely under direction of a Commission appointed by King Charles II and chaired by Sir Christopher Wren.
 Rise of modern London
Following London's growth in the 18th century, it became the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925. This growth was aided from 1836 by London's first railways, which put countryside towns within easy reach of the city. The rail network expanded very rapidly, and caused these places to grow while London itself expanded into surrounding fields, merging with neighbouring settlements such as Kensington. Rising traffic congestion on city centre roads led to the creation of the world's first metro system—the London Underground—in 1863, driving further expansion and urbanisation.
London's local government system struggled to cope with the rapid growth, especially in providing the city with adequate infrastructure. Between 1855 and 1889, the Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion. It was then replaced by the County of London, overseen by the London County Council, London's first elected city-wide administration.
The Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe during World War II killed over 30,000 Londoners and flattened large tracts of housing and other buildings across London. The rebuilding during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s was characterised by a wide range of architectural styles and has resulted in a lack of architectural unity that has become part of London's character. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area outside the County of London's borders. The expanded area was called Greater London and was administered by the Greater London Council.
In the decades following World War II, large-scale immigration from Commonwealth countries and beyond transformed London into one of the most racially and culturally diverse cities in Europe. Integration of the new immigrants was not always smooth, with major race riots in Notting Hill and Brixton, but was certainly smoother than in other English regions and largely lacking in widespread support for far right organisations, unlike its European or American contemporaries.
An economic revival from the 1980s onwards re-established London's position as a pre-eminent international centre. However, as the seat of government and the most important city in the UK, it has been subjected to bouts of terrorism. Provisional Irish Republican Army bombers sought to pressure the government into negotiations over Northern Ireland, frequently disrupting city activities with bomb threats—some of which were carried out—until their 1997 cease-fire. More recently, a series of coordinated bomb attacks were carried out by Islamic extremist suicide bombers on the public transport network on 7 July 2005—just 24 hours after London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics.
- See also: List of heads of London government
 Local government
The administration of London takes place in 2 tiers—a city-wide, strategic tier and a local tier. City-wide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities. The GLA consists of two elected parts; the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, who scrutinise the Mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The GLA was set up in 2000 to replace the similar Greater London Council (GLC) which had been abolished in 1986. The headquarters of the GLA and the Mayor of London is at City Hall; the Mayor is Boris Johnson. The 33 local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation. They are responsible for local services not overseen by the GLA, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection.
 National government
London is the home of the Government of the United Kingdom which is located around the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. Many government departments are located close to Parliament, particularly along Whitehall, including the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street.
The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this sobriquet was first applied to England itself by John Bright) because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have similarly organised parliaments with a largely ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house and a smaller, upper house.
London is represented in the national Parliament by 74 Members of Parliament (MPs) who correspond to local parliamentary constituencies. For a list of London constituencies, see List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London. Of these 74 MPs, 44 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, 8 are Liberal Democrats and one is from the RESPECT party.
London can be defined in a number of ways, although the situation was once more ambiguous and open to periodic legal debate. At London's core is the small, ancient City of London which is commonly known as 'the City' or 'Square Mile'. London's metropolitan area grew considerably during the Victorian era and again during the Interwar period, but expansion halted in the 1940s because of World War II and Green Belt legislation, and the area has been largely static since. The London region of England, also commonly known as Greater London, is the area administered by the Greater London Authority. The urban sprawl of the conurbation—or Greater London Urban Area—covers a roughly similar area, with a slightly larger population. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.
Forty percent of Greater London is covered by the London postal district, within which 'LONDON' forms part of the postal address. The London telephone area code covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are omitted and some places just outside are included. The area within the orbital M25 motorway is sometimes used to define the "London area" and the Greater London boundary has been aligned to it in places. Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London. Informally, the city is split into North, South, East, West and often also Central London.
The Metropolitan Police District, city-wide local government area and London transport area have varied over time, but broadly coincide with the Greater London boundary. The Romans may have marked the centre of Londinium with the London Stone, still visible on Cannon Street. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London (traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross, near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall) are approximately 51°30'29?N, 00°07'29?W. Trafalgar Square has also become a point for celebrations and protests.
Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have City status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are the ceremonial counties.The current area of Greater London was historically part of the counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire. Unlike most capital cities, London's status as the capital of the UK has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution. The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.
According to the dictionary definition of 'the seat of government', London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government, however according to the wider dictionary definition of, 'the most important town...' and many other authorities London is properly considered the capital of England.
Greater London covers an area of 609 square miles (1,579 km²), making it the 37th largest urban area in the world. Its primary geographical feature is the Thames, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills such as Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. These hills presented no significant obstacle to the growth of London from its origins as a port on the north side of the river, and therefore London is roughly circular. Many of the highest points in London are located in the suburbs or on the boundaries with adjacent counties.
The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width. Since the Victorian era It has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding. The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound. In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2030, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.
London has a temperate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, with regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year—unlike the rest of the UK and even the nearby coast. The warmest month is July, with an average temperature range at Greenwich of 13.6 °C to 22.8 °C (56.5 to 73.0 °F). Record high temperatures of up to 38.1 °C (101 °F) were recorded in different parts of London on 10 August 2003. The coolest month is January, averaging 2.4 °C to 7.9 °C (35.6 to 46.2 °F). Average annual precipitation is 583.6 mm (22.98 in), with February on average the driest month. Snow is relatively uncommon, particularly because heat from the urban area can make London up to 5 °C (9 °F) hotter than the surrounding areas in winter. Light snowfall, however, is generally seen a few times every year. London is in USDA Hardiness zone 9, and AHS Heat Zone 2.
|Weather averages for London
|Average high °C (°F)
|Average low °C (°F)
|Precipitation mm (inches)
|Source: Met Office 14 August 2007
|Climate chart for London
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm
source: Met Office
- See also: List of places in London, Central London, Inner London, and Outer London
London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names (e.g. Bloomsbury, Knightsbridge, Mayfair, Whitechapel, Fitzrovia). These are either informal designations, or reflect the names of superseded parishes and city wards. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a neighbourhood with its own distinctive character, but often with no modern official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.
London is one of the world's three largest financial centres (alongside New York and Tokyo) with a dominant role in several international financial markets, including cross-border bank lending, international bond issuance and trading, foreign-exchange trading, over-the-counter derivatives, fund management and foreign equities trading. It also has the world's largest insurance market, the leading exchange for dealing in non-precious metals, the largest spot gold and gold lending markets, the largest ship broking market, and more foreign banks and investment houses than any other centre. The City has its own governance and boundaries, giving it a status as the only completely autonomous local authority in London. London's new financial and commercial hub is the Docklands area to the east of the City, dominated by the Canary Wharf complex. Other businesses locate in the City of Westminster, the home of the UK's national government and the well-known Westminster Abbey.
The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, with locations such as Oxford Street, Leicester Square, Covent Garden and Piccadilly Circus acting as tourist magnets. The West London area is known for fashionable and expensive residential areas such as Notting Hill, Knightsbridge and Chelsea—where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds. The average price for all properties in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is £894,000 with similar average outlay in most of Central London.
The eastern side of London contains the East End and East London. The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London. The surrounding East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which is being developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics.
With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. There were an estimated 7,512,400 official residents in Greater London as of mid-2006. However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 8,278,251 people in 2001, while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area. According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union and the second most populous in Europe (or third if Istanbul is considered European).
|Country of Birth
| United Kingdom
| Republic of Ireland
| Sri Lanka
| South Africa
| United States
| New Zealand
The region covers an area of 609 square miles (1,579 km²). The population density is 12,331 people per square mile (4,761/km²), more than ten times that of any other British region. In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 17th largest metropolitan region in the world. It is also ranked 4th in the world in number of billionaires (United States Dollars) residing in the city. London ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.
 Ethnic groups
According to 2005 estimates, 69.6% of these seven and a half million people are classed as white, including White British (58.2%), White Irish (2.6%) and "Other White" (8.8%), the majority of whom are other Europeans. 12.9% of people are of South Asian descent, including Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other Southern Asian ethnicities). 10.8% of people are Black (around 5.5% are Black African, 4.4% as Black Caribbean, 0.8% as "Other Black"). 3.4% are of mixed race; 1.4% are Chinese; and 1.9% of people belong to another ethnic group (mostly Latin American - an estimated 60,000 Brazilians reside in London, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and other East Asians). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. The Irish born, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, number approximately 250,000 and are the largest group born outside of Britain.
In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities which have a population of more than 10,000 in London. Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2006, London's foreign-born population is 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2001 census showed that 27.1% of Greater London's population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as non-white.
The table to the right shows the 'Country of Birth' of London residents in 2001, the date of the last UK Census. (Top 21). Note that a portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British armed forces in Germany.
As of 2008, 40% of London's total population is from an ethnic minority group. Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four.
- See also: List of churches and cathedrals of London
The largest religious groupings in London are Christian (57.8%), No Religion (15.5%), Muslim (7.9%), Hindu (4.1%), Jewish (3.1%), and Sikh (1.5%). London has traditionally been dominated by Christianity, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, while the principle bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, the Archbishop of Canterbury has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Religious practice is lower than any other part of the UK or Western Europe and is around seven times lower than American averages. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination, although church attendance, particularly at evangelical Anglican churches in London, has started to increase.
London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim edifice is London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which is home to one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple. Sikh communities are located in East and West London, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the world, outside India. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, St. John's Wood, Golders Green, and Edgware in North London.
- Further information: Economy of the United Kingdom, Economy of London, and Media in London
London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is one of three "command centres" for the world economy (along with New York City and Tokyo). London is one of the largest centres for finance in the world, and has the 6th largest city economy in the world after Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Paris. As the world's largest international banking centre with a 50% share of all European activity and Europe's second largest city economy, year-by-year London generates approximately 20% of the UK's GDP (or $446 billion in 2005); while the economy of the London metropolitan area (the largest in Europe) generates approximately 30% of UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005.)
London shifted to a mostly service-based economy earlier than other European cities, particularly following World War II. London's success is as a service industry and business centre.
This can be attributed to factors such as English being the lingua franca, its former position as the capital of the British Empire, close relationship with the U.S. and various countries in Asia. Other factors include English law being the most important and most used contract law in international business and the multi-cultural infrastructure. Government policies such as low taxes, particularly for foreigners (non-UK domiciled residents do not get taxed on their foreign earnings), a business friendly environment, good transport infrastructure, particularly its aviation industry; and a deregulated economy with little intervention by the government have all contributed to London's economy becoming more service based. Over 85% (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in service industries. Another half a million employees resident in Greater London work in manufacturing and construction, almost equally divided between both. There has been a significant fall in the number of people working in manufacturing industries in London over the last three decades, largely as a result of competition from lower cost regions but also as a consequence of technology and process improvements. Even so, there are still more than 15,000 manufacturing businesses in London such as clothing, printing, fabricated metal, furniture and wood/products and food and drink. There is also strong growth in the recycling/environmental sector. A strong manufacturing base still thrives in London because of its geographic location and access to huge markets, its large science and knowledge base, its physical assets, its diversity and its role as a centre of design and creative industries.
London's largest industry remains finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Over 300,000 people are employed in financial services in London. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. More funds are invested in the City of London than in the next top ten European cities combined, and more international telephone calls are made to and from London than any other point on the planet. The City is the largest financial and business centre in Europe and, has begun to once more overtake New York City, partly due to strict accounting following the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and a tightening of market regulations in the United States. Due to New York's tightening of market regulations, London stock exchanges have had approximately 20% more initial public offerings in 2006.
London is home to banks, brokers, insurers and legal and accounting firms. A second, smaller financial district is developing at Canary Wharf to the east of the City which includes the global headquarters of HSBC, Reuters, Barclays and the Magic Circle, which includes Clifford Chance, the largest law firm in the world. London handled 31% of global currency transactions in 2005—an average daily turnover of US$753 billion—with more US dollars traded in London than New York, and more euros traded than in every other city in Europe combined.
More than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies are headquartered in central London. Over 70% of the FTSE 100 are located within London's metropolitan area, and 75% of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.
Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in London (see Media in London) and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector. The BBC is a key employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many national newspapers are edited in London, having traditionally been associated with Fleet Street in the City, they are now primarily based around Canary Wharf.Soho is the centre of London's post-production industry.
Tourism is one of London's prime industries and employed the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in London in 2003, while annual expenditure by tourists is around £15 billion. London is a popular destination for tourists, attracting 27 million overnight-stay visitors every year, second only to Paris.
From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the third-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 50 million tonnes of cargo each year. Most of this actually passes through Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London.
- See also: Architecture in London and List of tallest structures in London
, one of the largest dome structures in the world, originally built to celebrate the new millennium, is now a part of a huge redevelopment project and hosts many major events
London is too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, having accumulated its buildings over a long period of time and drawn on a wide range of influences. It is, however, mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings. Many grand houses and public buildings (such as the National Gallery) are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, except for a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. A majority of buildings in London date from the Edwardian or Victorian periods. The disused (but soon to be rejuvenated) 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St Pancras and Paddington (at least internally).
The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London and lower densities in the suburbs. In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium-rise and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers such as the notable "Gherkin", Tower 42 and One Canada Square are usually found in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape, the British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross, and the Great Court of the British Museum. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, located by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now used as an entertainment venue known as The O2.
The development of tall buildings has been encouraged in the London Plan, which will lead to the erection of many new skyscrapers over the next decade, particularly in the City of London and Canary Wharf. The 72-storey, 1,017 feet (310 m) "Shard London Bridge" by London Bridge station, the 945 feet (288 m) Bishopsgate Tower and around 20 other skyscrapers over 500 feet (150 m) are either proposed or approved and could transform the city's skyline.
A great many monuments pay homage to people and events in the city. The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally-recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of the centre.
 Parks and gardens
Often called "The Green City," London has a number of open spaces. The largest of these in the central area are the Royal Parks of Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington Gardens at the western edge of central London and Regent's Park on the northern edge. This park is located near the tourist attractions of Baker Street, where the fictional Sherlock Holmes lived, and Madame Tussauds Wax Museum. Closer to central London are the smaller Royal Parks of Green Park and St. James's Park. Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts.
A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the south-east, Bushy Park and Richmond Park to the south-west and Victoria Park, East London to the east. Primrose Hill to the north of Regent's Park is a popular spot to view the city skyline. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 791-acre (3.2 km²) Hampstead Heath of North London.This incorporates Kenwood House, the former stately home and a popular location in the summer months where classical music concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.In the extreme South East of Greater London, the London Boroughs of Bexley and Bromley are noted for their open spaces and extensive wooded areas.
 Society and culture
 Leisure and entertainment
Within the City of Westminster, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements. London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district, and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops. Shoreditch and Hoxton in the East End contain a plethora of bars, nightclubs, restaurants and galleries. Islington's one mile (2 km) long Upper Street, extending northwards from The Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the UK.
Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly one mile (2 km) long—which makes it the longest shopping street in the world—and home to many shops and department stores including Selfridges. The adjoining Bond Street in Mayfair is an extremely upmarket location, home to fashion, jewellery, and accessories design houses. Knightsbridge—home to the Harrods department store— lies just to the southwest. Together with these, the fashionable shopping areas of Sloane Street, and Kings Road represent London's prestigious role in the world of fashion. London is home to Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan and New York. London also has a high number of street markets, including Camden Market for fashions and alternative products, Portobello Road for antiques, and vintage and one-off clothes, and Borough Market for organic and specialist foods. London is known for its varying and outstanding cuisine and variety of restaurants, the London and British press are often used by Londoners (more than tourists) to gauge the quality of new restaurants. Publications such as Time Out, Lusso Magazine, and Square Meal contain multiple restaurant reviews each issue. Some acclaimed restaurants include Gaucho, Momos, Kensington Roof Gardens, OXO Tower, the Mandarin Oriental's restaurant, Palm Beach, Lincontro and the Mango Tree.
London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese food restaurants of Chinatown.Soho's variety of restaurants includes Italian- and Greek-influenced establishments among others, as well as all manner of novelties and oddities. More upmarket restaurants are scattered around central London, with concentrations in Mayfair, Knightsbridge and Notting Hill. Across the city, areas home to particular ethnic groups are often recognizable by restaurants, food shops and market stalls offering their local fare, and the large supermarket chains stock such items in areas with sizable ethnic groups.
There are a variety of regular annual events. The Caribbean-descended community in Notting Hill in West London organizes the colourful Notting Hill Carnival, Europe's biggest street carnival, every summer.The beginning of the year is celebrated with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, while traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour, a very formal military pageant to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.
 Literature and film
- See also: London in fiction, London in film, List of films set in London, and List of television shows set in London
London has been the setting for many works of literature. Two writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, and Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London. James Boswell's biographical Life of Johnson mostly takes place in London, and is the source of Johnson's well-known aphorism: "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford." The earlier (1722) A Journal of the Plague Year by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based in London, and some of his work - most notably his play The Alchemist - was set in the city. Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are the afore-mentioned Dickens novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's illustrious Sherlock Holmes stories. Trollope's Palliser novels are largely set in London, vividly depicting Westminster and its surrounds. The 1933 novel Down and Out in Paris and London by George Orwell describes life in poverty in both cities. A modern writer pervasively influenced by the city is Peter Ackroyd, in works such as London: The Biography, The Lambs of London and Hawksmoor. Academic Bloomsbury and hilly Hampstead have traditionally been the liberal, literary heartlands of the city.
London has played a significant role in the film industry, and has major studios at Pinewood, Shepperton, Elstree and Leavesden, as well as an important special effects and post-production community centred in Soho in central London. Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.Many films have also used London as a location and have done much to shape international perceptions of the city. See main article London in film.
The city also hosts a number of performing arts schools, including the Central School of Speech and Drama (alumni: Judi Dench and Laurence Olivier), the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (alumni: Jim Broadbent and Donald Sutherland) and the prestigious Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (alumni: Joan Collins and Roger Moore). The London Film Festival is held each year in October.
London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and is home to major music corporations, such as EMI and Decca Records, as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.
London is home to many orchestras and concert halls such as the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra), the Royal Albert Hall (BBC Promenade Concerts), the Royal Festival Hall (Philharmonia Orchestra, London Philharmonic Orchestra, London Sinfonietta) and Wigmore Hall. London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the Coliseum Theatre. The United Kingdom's Royal Ballet and the English National Ballet are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre and the Royal Albert Hall.
As a cultural centre for the United Kingdom, London has had a major role in many popular music movements. It has numerous renowned venues for rock and pop concerts, including large arenas such as Earls Court and Wembley Arena, as well as more intimate venues, such as Brixton Academy and Hammersmith Apollo. The area around the northern part of Charing Cross Road in Westminster is well known for its shops that sell modern musical instruments and audio equipment. London was home of one of the legs for both the Live Aid and Live 8 concerts.
London and its surrounding Home Counties have spawned iconic and popular artists. London is home to the first and original Hard Rock Cafe and the illustrious Abbey Road Studios where The Beatles created many of their hits. Musicians such as Bob Marley, Jimi Hendrix and Freddie Mercury have lived in London. Notable musicians and groups associated with London include The Who, Fleetwood Mac, Iron Maiden, Elton John, Elvis Costello, Cliff Richard, John Lennon, Queen, Yoko Ono, Paul McCartney, Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin and The Rolling Stones. London was instrumental in the development of punk music, with figures such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Jam, and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.
As Britain's largest urban area, London has played a key role in the development of most British-born strains of "urban" and electronic music, such as drum and bass, UK garage, grime and dubstep, and is home to many UK hip hop artists.
The largest entertainment venture of all time, The Phantom of the Opera, a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, premiered here at Her Majesty's Theatre, and emerged as the highest grossing entertainment event with US $3.3 billion, and attendance of 80 million worldwide.
London has hosted the Summer Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948. In July 2005 London was chosen to host the Games in 2012, which will make it the first city in the world to host the Summer Olympics three times. London was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.
London's most popular sport (for both participants and spectators) is football. London has thirteen League football clubs, including five in the Premier League ( Chelsea, Arsenal, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United ), plus a further eight in the remaining three divisions (Barnet, Brentford, Charlton Athletic, Crystal Palace, Dagenham & Redbridge, Leyton Orient, Millwall and Queens Park Rangers), plus countless non-league and amateur football teams.
London has a special place in the history of Association Football. The playing of football in London has been well documented since it was first outlawed in 1314. In the sixteenth century the headmaster of St Paul's School, Richard Mulcaster is credited with taking mob football and transforming it into organised and refereed team football. The modern game of football was first codified in 1863 in London and subsequently spread worldwide. Key to the establishment of the modern game was Londoner Ebenezer Cobb Morley who was a founding member of the Football Association, the oldest football organisation in the world.Morley wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for football which led directly to the first meeting at the Freemason's Tavern in central London of the FA. He wrote the first set of rules of true modern football at his house in Barnes. The modern passing game was invented in London in the early 1870s by the Royal Engineers A.F.C.
London also has four rugby union teams in the Guinness Premiership (London Irish, Saracens, Wasps and Harlequins), although only the Harlequins play in London (all the other three now play outside Greater London). London also has many other rugby union clubs in lower leagues, including Richmond F.C., Blackheath R.C., Rosslyn Park F.C. and Barnes R.F.C.
London has its own rugby league Super League club in Harlequins RL and the National League Two team the London Skolars as well as a thriving amateur scene.
Since 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team, and served as the venue for the FA Cup final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes. Twickenham Stadium in west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 84,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.
Basketball in London has seen many powerful teams succumb to financial difficulties and disappear without a trace. London Towers are the most recognisable name to experience the rise and fall, and are joined by Greater London Leopards and, in 2007, London United. The capital's only representative in the top-tier British Basketball League is newly elected London Capital, who boast former Los Angeles Lakers star Steve Bucknall as their coach. They play their home games at Capital City Academy, although rumours abound suggest a future move to Wembley Arena, along with the return of the Towers to the planned Croydon Arena.
Cricket in London centres on its two Test cricket grounds at Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C) in St John's Wood, and The Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C) in Kennington. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon which sees some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2 mile (~42 km) course around the city, and the Oxford vs. Cambridge Boat Race on the River Thames between Putney and Mortlake.
Transport is one of the four areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London. However the mayor's financial control is limited and he does not control the heavy rail network (although in November 2007 he assumed responsibility for the North London Railway as well as several other lines, to form London Overground). The public transport network, administered by Transport for London (TfL), is one of the most extensive in the world, but faces congestion and reliability issues, which a large investment programme is attempting to address, including £7 billion (€10 billion) of improvements planned for the Olympics. London has been commended as the city with the best public transport. Cycling is an increasingly popular way to get around London. The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.
The centrepiece of the public transport network is the London Underground—commonly referred to as The Tube—which has eleven interconnecting lines. It is the oldest, longest, and most expansive metro system in the world, dating from 1863. The system was home to the world's first underground electric line, the City & South London Railway, which began service in 1890. Over three million journeys a day are made on the Underground network, around nearly 1 billion journeys are made each year. The Underground serves the central area and most suburbs to the north of the Thames, while those to the south are served by an extensive suburban rail surface network.
The Docklands Light Railway is a second metro system using smaller and lighter trains, which opened in 1987, serving East London and Greenwich on both sides of the Thames. Commuter and intercity railways generally do not cross the city, instead running into fourteen terminal stations scattered around its historic centre; the exception is the Thameslink route operated by First Capital Connect, with terminus stations at Bedford, Brighton and Moorgate. Since the early 1990s, increasing pressures on the commuter rail and Underground networks have led to increasing demands—particularly from businesses and the City of London Corporation—for Crossrail: a £10 billion east-west heavy rail connection under central London, which was given the green light in early October 2007.
High-speed Eurostar trains link St Pancras International with Lille and Paris in France, and Brussels in Belgium. Journey times to Paris and Brussels of 2h 15 and 1h 51 respectively make London closer to continental Europe than the rest of Britain by virtue of the newly-completed High Speed 1 rail link to the Channel Tunnel.From 2009 this line will also allow for high speed domestic travel from Kent into London. The redevelopment of St. Pancras was key to London's Olympic bid, as the station also serves two international airports through Thameslink, and will also provide direct rail links to the Olympic site at Stratford using British Rail Class 395 trains running under the Olympic Javelin name; these will be based on Japanese Shinkansen high-speed trains.
London's bus network is one of the biggest in the world, running 24 hours, with 8,000 buses, 700 bus routes, and over 6 million passenger journeys made every weekday. In 2003, the network's ridership was estimated at over 1.5 billion passenger trips per annum which is more than the Underground. Around £850 m is taken in revenue each year and London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. The buses are internationally recognised, and are a trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.
London is a major international air transport hub. No fewer than eight airports use the words London Airport in their name, but most traffic passes through one of five major airports. London Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.After completion of the fifth terminal in March 2008, Heathrow may once again be the world's busiest airport, handling a mixture of full-service domestic, European and inter-continental scheduled passenger flights.Plans are already being considered for a sixth terminal, to the disapproval of residents near to the airport and to its take-off and landing corridors. Similar traffic, with the addition of some low-cost short-haul flights, is also handled at London Gatwick Airport.London Stansted Airport and London Luton Airport cater mostly for low-cost short-haul flights. London City Airport, the smallest and most central airport, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.
Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, travel in outer London is car-dominated. The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (in the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £8 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of congested central London. Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a vastly reduced season pass which is renewed monthly and is cheaper than a corresponding bus fare.
London also has two central Park & Ride sites for the convenience of shoppers on Oxford Street and Bond Street, Westminster City Council car parks run a courtesy bus service from its Park Lane and Marble Arch car parks.
Home to a range of universities, colleges and schools, London has a student population of about 378,000. and is a centre of research and development. Most primary and secondary schools in London follow the same system as the rest of England.
With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe. It comprises 20 colleges as well as several smaller institutes, each with a high degree of autonomy. Constituent colleges have their own admissions procedures, and are effectively universities in their own right, although most degrees are awarded by the University of London rather than the individual colleges. Its constituents include multi-disciplinary colleges such as UCL, King's and Royal Holloway and more specialised institutions such as the London School of Economics, SOAS, the Royal Academy of Music and the Institute of Education.
Imperial College London and UCL have been ranked among the top ten universities in the world by The Times Higher Education Supplement: in 2007 Imperial was ranked the 5th best and UCL the 9th best university in the world.
In addition, the LSE is considered the world‘s leading social science institution for teaching and research, plus has the most international student body of any university in the world today.
London's other universities, such as Brunel University, City University, London Metropolitan University, Imperial College London, Middlesex University, University of East London, the University of Westminster and London South Bank University are not part of the University of London but still leaders in their field and popular choices among students both nationally and internationally. Some were polytechnics until these were granted university status in 1992, and others which were founded much earlier. Imperial College London left the University of London in 2007. London is also known globally for its business education, with the London Business School (ranked 1st in Europe - Business Week) and Cass Business School (Europe's largest finance school) both being top world-rated business schools. In addition there are three international universities: Schiller International University, Richmond University and Regent's College.
London is also a world leader in the creative industries and the University of the Arts London is a recognised university that specialises in all forms of the arts and was listed in Business Week's D-School list. The only other British arts institute listed was the Royal College of Art.
London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions which are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The Natural History Museum (biology and geology), Science Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum (fashion and design) are clustered in South Kensington's "museum quarter", while the British Museum houses historic artefacts from around the world. The British Library at St Pancras is the UK's national library, housing 150 million items. The city also houses extensive art collections, primarily in the National Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern. See the list of museums in London.
 Sister Cities
Greater London Authority –
- Berlin, Germany;
- Beijing, China;
- Moscow, Russia;
- New York City, New York, USA;
- Paris, France;
- Tehran, Iran
- Tokyo, Japan
- Bogotá, Colombia
In addition to this London's Boroughs are also twinned with other parts of other cities. For a full list see here:
 See also
 Further reading
- Ackroyd, Peter (2001). London: The Biography. London: Vintage, 880. ISBN 0099422581.
- Reddaway, Thomas Fiddian (1940). The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire. Jonathan Cape, 333.
- Aubin, Robert Arnold (1943). London in flames, London in glory: poems on the fire and rebuilding of London. Rutgers University Press, 383.
- , London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport) (online). The Weather Underground, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
- , a b c T 08: Selected age groups for local authorities in the United Kingdom; estimated resident population; Mid-2006 Population Estimates (XLS). Office for National Statistics (August 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
- , a b c KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas www.statistics.gov.uk
- , a b World Gazetteer - World: metropolitan areas
- , a b London Metropolitan Area population. Demographia (August 28, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
- , Neighbourhood Statistics. Neighbourhood Statisics. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , The world’s largest cities and urban areas in 2006. City Mayors.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Londinium. AncientWorlds LLC. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , English Renaissance. East West Dialogue. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Industrial Revolution in London. Nettlesworth Primary School. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Gothic Revival. Ontario Architecture. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Mills, A., Dictionary of London Place Names, (2001)
- , a b Fact Files: London Government Offices for the English Regions. Government Office for London. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
- , Elcock, Howard (1994). Local Government: Policy and Management in Local Authorities. Routledge, 368. ISBN 0415101670.
- , Jones, Bill; Dennis Kavanagh, Michael Moran, Philip Norton (2007). Politics UK. Pearson Education, 868. ISBN 1405824115.
- , Z/Yen Limited (November 2005). The Competitive Position of London as a Global Financial Centre (PDF). CityOfLondon. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
- , Lists: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. World Heritage. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Very British Career Fair - Visit Overseas. Y-axis Overseas Careers. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Languages spoken in the UK population.. CILT. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Geoffry of Monmouth Index. Sacred Texts. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Llud, King of the Britons. Gatekeep Key. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
- , Gold, David L (1979). "English words of supposed Hebrew origin in George Crabb's English Synonymes". American Speech 51: 61-64.
- , a b Legend of London's Origin. Cultural Heritage Resources. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Coates, Richard (1998). "A new explanation of the name of London". Transactions of the Philological Society 96 (2): 203–229. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00027.
- , a b Timeline - The Roman invasion and occupation of Britain. The History on the Net Group (2007-04-22). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- , a b c Historical Overview of London Population. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p History and general information. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Timeline of Anglo Saxon England. Britannia Internet Magazine.. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- , Nigel in London. Nigel in London (4 December 2006). Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
- , BBC - History - 1066 - King William. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- , Tinniswood, Adrian. A History of British Architecture - White Tower. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- , UK Parliament - Parliament: The building (09/11/2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Palace of Westminster. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Winchester - About. About, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Britannia History: Peasants' Revolt. Jeff Hobbs. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , First and Second Barons' Wars. Emerson Kent. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Defeat of the Spanish Armada. Think Quest. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Spanish Armada. Heather Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , a b The Great Plague 1655 - the Black Death. E.P.C. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Great Fire of London, 1666. Anniina Jokinen (April 30, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Pepys S, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, Random House Modern Library Edition, 2001.
- , Schofield J (January 2001). London After the Great Fire: Civil War and Revolution. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Museum of London - Rebuilding after the fire. Museum of London. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Rebuilding of London After the Great Fire. Thomas Fiddian. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Largest Cities Through History. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , London's Railways. Spartacus. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , London and Greenwich Railway. Toby and John King. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , a b c Transport for London. London Underground: History. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
- , Rise of modern london (December 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Air Raid Precautions. "Home Front" Website. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , The German churches in London. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Civic Heraldry of the United Kingdom. Ralf Hartemink (1996). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , A Nation of Immigrants?. CIVITAS. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Helbing, Mr Tim. The Notting Hill Riots and British National Identity. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , London in the European financial services industry: locational advantage and product complementarities. Oxford Journals. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Provisional Irish Republican Army (U.K., separatists). Council on Foreign Relations (November 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , BBC News - London Attacks. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Parliament. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , 10 Downing Street - Official Website. 10 Downing Street. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , UK Politics: Talking Politics—The 'Mother of Parliaments'. British Broadcasting Corporation (1998-06-03). Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
- , History and general information. Gateways Moving. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Beavan, C. & Bickersteth, H., Reports of Cases in Chancery, Argued and Determined in the Rolls Court, (1865)
- , BBC - London - Features - Where is the Centre of London?. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Dilys, M Hill (2000). Urban Policy and Politics in Britain. St. Martin's Press, 268. ISBN 0312227450.
- , London in its Regional Setting (PDF). London Assembly. Retrieved on [[2007-08-16]].
- , Stationery Office (1980). The Inner London Letter Post. H.M.S.O, 128. ISBN 0102515808.
- , Greater London Area and Post Codes. UK Web Start. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Mail, Royal (2004). Address Management Guide. Royal Mail.
- , The Essex, Greater London and Hertfordshire (County and London Borough Boundaries) Order. OPSI (1993). Retrieved on [[2007-08-16]].
- , London Government Act 1963. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Greater London Authority Act 1999. OPSI. Retrieved on [[2007-08-16]].
- , Trafalgar Square History. Greater London Authority. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
- , Trafalgar Square - Greater London Authority. London Government. Retrieved on [[2007-08-16]].
- , Lieutenancies Act 1997. OPSI. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Barlow, I. M. (1991). Metropolitan Government. Routledge, 346. ISBN Routledge.
- , London in Photos. The World In Photos. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , British Archaeology Issue 45, June 1999. British Archaeology. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , (1994) Collins English Dictionary. Collins Eduction plc.
- , Oxford English Reference Dictionary. Oxford English.
- , HC 501 0304.PDF (PDF). Parliament Publications.
- , HC 501 0304.PDF (PDF). Parliament Publications.
- , 'England' (1994) Collins English Dictionary. Collins Eduction plc.
- , Capital Cities of the UK. Woodlands Junior School. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , World's Largest Urban Areas. City Mayor. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , River Thames London. Woodlands Junior School. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , London Borough Tops. Hill Bagging. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , London: A History, by Francis Sheppard page 10.. Google Books. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , London - Geography and climate: Encyclopedia II. The Global Oneness Commitment. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , "Flooding" - UK Environment Agency. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
- , "Sea Levels" - UK Environment Agency. Environment Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Thames Barrier. Melissa Soh and Pei-Chea Tran. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , BBC News: On the rise: The Thames in 2100. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
- , August 2003 - hot spell, UK Met Office. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
- , Greenwich 1971–2000 averages, UK Met Office. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
- , Story of London.. London A to Z. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Greenwich 1971–2000 averages. Met Office. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Greenwich 1971–2000 averages. Met Office. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , London Place Names. KryssTal. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- , The 32 London Boroughs. London Online. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
- , London as a financial centre. Mayor of London. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , a b London: Centre of International Finance.. University of Florida. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , What is the City of London?. City of London Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
- , London Areas. Areas Of London. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , West End still drawing crowds. BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Guardian Unlimited Money.. The Guardian Money. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Price of Properties.. Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , a b Tomorrow’s East End. News Week. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , South-east England Population by Area from 1891. Demographia. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
- , Forbes Magazine list of billionaires.. Forbes. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
- , CNN Money World's Most Expensive Cities 2004.. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , BBC - London - Faith - Brazilian London. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , London: Every race, colour, nation and religion on earth. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , One Third of Londoners born outside Britain. This is London. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
- , "Census 2001: London", Office for National Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , Greater London Authority - Summary of 'Country-of-Birth' in London. Greater London Authority. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
- , Sarah Kyambi, Beyond Black and White: Mapping new immigrant communities, London: Institute for Public Policy Research, 7 September 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
- , London's black and minority communities helped to have a greater voice by London Councils. londoncouncils.gov.uk
- , Graeme Paton (2007-10-01). One fifth of children from ethnic minorities. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-03-28.
- , About Saint Paul's Cathedral. Dean and Chapter St Paul's. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Lambeth Palace Library. Lambeth Palace Library. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Westminster Abbey. Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , West Minster Cathedral. Westminster Cathedral. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "Thousands of churches face closure in ten years’", Times Online, 2007-02-10. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Church of England Statistics. Church of England. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. & The Islamic Cultural Centre. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "Hindu London", BBC, 6 June 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , £17 m Sikh temple opens. British Broadcasting Corporation (30 March 2003). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "Jewish Communities in London", British Broadcasting Corporation, 1 March 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, 2nd edition, Princeton University Press.
- , PriceWaterhouseCoopers, "UK Economic Outlook, March 2007", page 5. "Table 1.2 – Top 30 urban agglomeration GDP rankings in 2005 and illustrative projections to 2020 (using UN definitions and population estimates)" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
- , Brochure - London: world international financial capital - UK. UK Invest. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , London's place in the UK economy, 2005–06. Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
- , See: List of metropolitan areas in the European Union by GRP
- , "The Economic Positioning of Metropolitan Areas in North Western Europe", The Institute for Urban Planning and Development of the Paris Ile-de-France Region, December 2002.
- , a b c d "London's Place in the UK Economy, 2006–07", A report by Oxford Economic Forecasting for the City of London, November 2006
- , Greater London Authority.. Greater London Authority. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , a b c d Where next for London manufacturing?. EEF. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- , "Financial Services", UK Trade & Investment, 11 May 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , Big 4 Audit London All Levels!. Jobs.Finanztreff. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Clark, Andrew. "Mayor gives New York a wake-up call", Guardian Unlimited, 23 January 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
- , New York Isn’t the World’s Undisputed Financial Capital - New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , "Triennial Central Bank SurveyPDF (259 KiB)", Bank for International Settlements, March 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , "Key facts", Corporation of London. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
- , London Stock Exchange. London Stock Exchange plc. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005–6"PDF (960 KiB), p19, Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London. Published November 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
- , Canary Wharf Group. Canary Wharf Group plc. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Soho London. View London Ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "London is the HR centre of opportunity in the UK", PersonnelToday.com, 15 February 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , "The Importance of Tourism in London", Visit London. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , "London 101: One Hundred and One Amazing Facts About LondonPDF (1.15 MiB)", Visit London. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , "Trade Statistics", Port of London Authority, Annual Report and Accounts 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , a b London: architecture.. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , National Gallery: Trafalgar Square. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Battersea Power Station. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Paddington Station.. Great Buildings. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , 30 Saint Mary Axe. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Tower 42 - London Architecture. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , 1 Canada Square. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Inside London's new 'glass egg'. British Broadcasting Corporation (Tuesday, 16 July 2002). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , The British Library. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The British Museum. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Millennium Dome. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , London - Full Summary of Projects. Will Fox, SkyscraperCity.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
- , Shard London Bridge - Official Website. Shard London Bridge. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Bishopsgate Tower. Skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Monument: Cannon Street. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Royal Albert Hall: Kensington Gore. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Nelson's Column, Trafalgar Square. Artefaqs Corporation. (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- ,  Green City Walks in London. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Kensington Gardens. The Royal Parks (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , The Sherlocks Homes Museum. Sherlock Homes Museum. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Madame Tussauds - Official Website. Madame Tussauds. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Madame Tussauds - Tourist Information. Tourist Information UK. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Green Park. The Royal Parks (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Greenwich Park. The Royal Parks (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Bushy Park. The Royal Parks (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Richmond Park. The Royal Parks (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , LondonTown - Victoria Park. LondonTown.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , LondonTown - Primrose Hill. LondonTown.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Primrose Hill - Official Website. Technology News Ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Hampstead Heath - City Of London. David Bentley (24 April 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , Kenwood House. English Heritage. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
- , London Borough of Bexley - Parks and Open Spaces. London Borough of Bexley. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
- , Review from Lusso Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-03-21
- , Chinatown - Official Website. Chinatown London. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , London Town - Notting Hill Carnival. LondonTown.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , a b c d e London in Literature.. Bryn Mawr College. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Working Title Films. Universal Studios. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , The Times BFI. The Times BFI. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , a b c d Theatres and concert halls.. Your London. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , Guide to England’s music history 'Chris'; Bootsn AllTravel Network; February 6, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- , "Wembley kick-off: Stadium is ready and England play first game in fortnight", Daily Mail, 2007-03-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
- , Info Please - 1908 Summer Olympics. Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Info Please - 1948 Summer Olympics. Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "IOC elects London as the Host City of the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012", International Olympic Committee, 6 July 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , British Empire Games Website. All Starts Flag. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , (from London), Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
- , TheFA.com - Premier League. The FA.com (17 January 2004). Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , History of the FA. Football Association website. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
- , Richard Mulcaster. Football Neywork. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Middleton Cambridge Football. Middleton Soccer. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Wall, Frederick (2005). 50 Years of Football, 1884–1934. Soccer Books Limited. ISBN 1-8622-3116-8. OCLC 56644992.
- , The Encyclopedia of British Football.. Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , Guinness Premiership: Clubs. Guinness Premiership (Premier Rugby). Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Harlequins Rugby - Official Site. Harlequins Rugby. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Wembley Stadium History - Official Website. Wembley National Stadium Limited.. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , RFU apply for two additional concerts at Twickenham Stadium in 2007. The Twickenham Rugby Stadium. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
- , LondonTown.com. LondonTown.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , London United Professional Basketball - Official Website. London United. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Clubs - British Basketball League. British Basketball League. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , About Lord's Cricket Grounds - Official Website. MCC (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , The Brit Oval - Official Website. Surrey CCC (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Wimbledon - Official Website. AELTC. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Flora London Marathon 2008. London Marathon ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race - Official Website. The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- , Transport for London. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , London Overground. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , "World's most expensive cities", CNN, 2007-06-19. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
- , a b London 2012 Olympic Transport Infrastructure.. Alarm UK. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , London voted best for transport. British Broadcasting Corporation News (2006-08-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
- , London Cycling Campaign. Rosanna Downes (20 November 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , a b "Beijing plans to overtake London with world's longest subway", Guardian Unlimited, Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
- , Schwandl, Robert (2001) London Underground UrbanRail.net. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
- , "How to Best Use the London Underground", The Travel Insider, 4 July 2004 (last updated: 8 May 2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , First Capital Connect. First Capital Connect ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Eurostar. Eurostar. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , About St Pancras International Train Station. saint Pancras International Train Station. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Transport for London. London Buses. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
- , London's bus improvements get Parliamentary seal of approval. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
- , London Black Cabs. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Tube - Transport for London. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , BAA Heathrow: Official Website. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , Heathrow Airport Terminal 5. TMC Ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , About Heathrow, BAA Heathrow. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
- , BAA Gatwick: Gatwick Airport. BAA. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , BAA Standsted : Stansted Airport. BAA (2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , London Luton Airport. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- , London City Airport - Corporate Information. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
- , a b c London Congestion Pricing.. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
- , "About the London Sector", London Higher Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , "About the University", University of London, 2006-02-20. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , UCL - Jurisdiction over Students. University College London (7 November 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Queer discipline Spring 2008. King's College London (21 January 2008). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Academic leadership - Royal Holloway. London External (31 October 2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , London School of Economics and Political Science. London School of Economics accessdate=2008-04-28.
- , The School of Oriental and African Studies. School of Oriental and African Studies. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Quality Assessment Report by the HEFCE for the Royal Academy of Music. Royal Academy of Music. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Institute of Education - University of London. Institute of Education. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , "Why 4/10 is a great score for Britain's universities". Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
- , The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2007 - Profile for London School of Economics. Times Online. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
- , About EBS London. Regent's College (2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Business Week. Business Week. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Cass Business School. Cass Business School (2007). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , D- Schools List. Business Week (2007). Retrieved on 2008-03-11.
- , South Kensington - Museum Quarter. Travel Webshots. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , "Some facts and figures", British Library. Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
- , The National Gallery, London - Official Website. The Natinoal Gallery. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Tate Britain: British Art from 1500. Tate Britain. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
- , Tate Modern: International modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
 External links
London in the European Union
Coordinates: 51°30'28?N 0°07'41?W? / ?51.50778, -0.12806