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The county council, serving the shire county, is based in County Hall in Preston, built as a home for the Lancashire county administration (including the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary) and opened on September 14, 1882.[10]

Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The council is currently controlled by the Labour Party.[11]

[edit] Physical geography

[edit] County top

The highest point of the ceremonial county is Gragareth, near Whernside, which reaches a height of 627 m (2,057 ft).[12] However, Green Hill near Gragareth has also been cited as the county top.[13] The highest point within the historic boundaries is Coniston Old Man in the Lake District at 803 m (2,634 ft).[14]

[edit] Rivers and lakes

Lancashire drains west from the Pennines into the Irish Sea. The major rivers which discharge into the sea are the Mersey (which forms the historic border with Cheshire and is now located entirely outside the ceremonial county), Ribble, Wyre and Lune. Now within Cumbria are the Leven and Duddon (which forms the historic border with Cumberland). Major tributaries of these rivers include the Calder, Crake, Darwen, Douglas, Hodder, Irwell, Roch, Tame and Yarrow.

Within the historic boundaries are the lakes of Windermere, Coniston Water and Esthwaite Water in the Lake District, which now form part of Cumbria.[15][16] Windermere forms the traditional border with Westmorland, as does the River Brathay which feeds the lake at its northern end and the River Winster and flows into the Kent estuary to the south-east.

[edit] History

The historic county boundaries
The historic county boundaries
Pendle Hill, a landmark in the history of the Society of Friends.
Pendle Hill, a landmark in the history of the Society of Friends.
Main article: History of Lancashire

The county was established in 1182[3] and later than many other counties. In the Domesday Book, its lands between the Ribble and the Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersham"[17] and were included in the returns for Cheshire.[18] Although some have taken this to mean that south Lancashire was, at that time, part of Cheshire,[19][17] it cannot be said clearly to have been part of Cheshire.[20][21][22] It is also claimed that the territory to the north formed, at that time, part of the West Riding of Yorkshire.[23] It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. The county was divided into the six hundreds of Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, Lonsdale, Salford and West Derby.[24] Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, which was the detached part north of Morecambe Bay (also known as Furness), and Lonsdale South. The Red Rose of Lancaster is the traditional symbol for the House of Lancaster, immortalized in the verse "In the battle for England's head/York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th century War of the Roses).

Lancashire is now much smaller than its historic extent due to a local government reform.[25] In 1889 an administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for county boroughs such as Liverpool and Manchester.[26] The area covered by the Lord-Lieutenant (termed now a ceremonial county) continued to cover the entirety of the administrative county along with the county boroughs, and thus was expanded slightly whenever boroughs annexed areas in other neighbouring counties. Examples of this include Wythenshawe (an area of Manchester south of the River Mersey and historically in Cheshire), and southern Warrington. This area also did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the traditional border between Lancashire and Yorkshire runs through the middle of the town.

During the 20th century the county became increasingly urbanised, particularly the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn, Bolton, Bootle, Burnley, Bury, Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale, Salford, St Helens and Wigan were added Blackpool (1904), Southport (1905), and Warrington (1900). The county boroughs also had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were particularly complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs - Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire.[27]

Lancashire in 1961
Lancashire in 1961 with districts shown and county boroughs marked County boroughs
1. Burnley 10. Oldham
2. Preston 11. Wigan
3. Rochdale 12. Manchester
4. Barrow-in-Furness 13. Salford
5. Blackpool 14. Bootle
6. Blackburn 15. St Helens
7. Southport 16. Liverpool
8. Bury 17. Warrington
9. Bolton

By the census of 1971 the population of Lancashire (including all its associated county boroughs) had reached 5,129,416, making it then the most populous geographic county in the UK. The administrative county of Lancashire was also the most populous of its type outside of London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county of Lancashire was abolished, as were the county boroughs. The urbanised southern part largely became part of two new metropolitan counties. The south-western part became part of Merseyside, the south-eastern part was incorporated into Greater Manchester.[28] The new county of Cumbria took the Furness exclave.[3] The boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St Helens and Sefton were entirely from Lancashire. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were Bury, Bolton, Manchester, Oldham (part), Rochdale, Salford, Tameside (part), Trafford (part) and Wigan. Warrington and Widnes, south of the new Merseyside/Greater Manchester border, rather than become part of Greater Manchester or Merseyside were instead made part of the new non-metropolitan county of Cheshire. The urban districts of Barnoldswick and Earby, the Bowland Rural District and the parishes of Bracewell and Brogden and Salterforth from the Skipton Rural District from the West Riding of Yorkshire became part of the new Lancashire.[4] One parish, Simonswood, was transferred from the borough of Knowsley in Merseyside to the district of West Lancashire in 1994.[29]

In 1998 the county borough system re-appeared in all but name, when Blackpool and Blackburn with Darwen became independent unitary authorities. The City of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA, founded in 1742, was named after Lancaster, Lancashire. Its neighbour city, York, PA, is located about 30 miles to the west. The War of the Roses tradition continued with Lancaster using as its symbol the red rose and York the white.

[edit] Local identity

A pressure group, the Friends of Real Lancashire, seek to promote use of the historic borders, and raised a petition in 1994 with 30,000 signatures calling "for the restoration of Lancashire's historic boundaries".[30][31] The petition requested that the "Metropolitan Counties of Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Cumbria [sic] be abolished and the real and historic county of Lancashire be restored". There is also a long-running campaign for Southport to be removed from Sefton in Merseyside.[32]

Greater Manchester was never adopted as a postal county by the Royal Mail, and so places in Greater Manchester retained their Lancashire and Cheshire addresses until the abolition of postal counties in 1996. Rochdale and Wigan, for example, were classed as parts of Lancashire. Other changes to the administrative borders were reflected in the postal counties.

Lancashire has a fairly strong identity as a county. In the areas that have since been transferred into other administrative counties, attachment to Lancashire varies. In the Lancastrian parts of Greater Manchester, attachment to Lancashire is still strong, as it is in the area North of the Sands that was transferred to Cumbria. In Merseyside, attachment to Lancashire tends to weaken as one gets closer to Liverpool itself.[33]

There has always been a small separatist movement in Lancashire.[citation needed] Although practically extinct these days, its heyday was undoubtedly at the turn of the 19th century.[citation needed] As recently as the late 1970s, meetings were held under various banners, mostly in rural districts around Garstang and the Forest of Bowland.[citation needed] Its stance became increasingly less radical until it merely disintegrated.[citation needed] Their argument surrounded historical issues over the county's unique heritage, in particular its unique Roman Catholic past. Arguments were made that the county's people were of a different background, some way in between Manx, Welsh and Cumbric (ancient Cumbria).[citation needed] These mainly evolved from the fact that the Anglo-Saxon folk migration never really reached Lancashire[citation needed], and that, along with Wales, Cumbria, Cornwall and the Isle of Man, it maintained a more Celtic bloodline[citation needed]. Its major downfall was that Lancashire never really had a unique language, unlike Wales and Cornwall, although Cumbric was once spoken throughout Lancashire (as well as Cumbria) until as late as the 12th Century. The Cymric kingdom of Rheged, which covered all of Northwest England, was never conquered by the Anglo-Saxons and merely incorporated peacefully into England. Therefore, Lancashire was never invaded, and retains a very similar bloodline to the one found there in there when the Romans left. Emphasis was placed on its rural culture and customs, and its staunch Catholic faith.

Today, the occasional Lancashire flag (yellow and red with three red roses[citation needed]) is seen flying around Clitheroe and Garstang.[citation needed]

[edit] Duchy of Lancaster

The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two remaining royal duchies in the United Kingdom. It has large landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, and operates as a property company, but also exercises the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster.[34] The Duchy's website now describes the County Palatine as comprising of "the counties of Lancashire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and the Furness area of Cumbria"[35]. These new counties include areas formerly in Cheshire and Yorkshire and it is unclear as to whether this is a reference to the whole of the new counties or just the parts that comprised the Palatine prior to the 1974 boundary changes. However, in 1992 it was stated by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, William Waldegrave that the "boundaries of the county palatine are the same as the county boundaries which existed prior to local government reorganisation in 1973"[36]

High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster".[37]

The Duchy administers bona vacantia within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate, and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained.

There is no separate Duke of Lancaster, the title having merged in the Crown many centuries ago - but the Duchy is administered by the Queen in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was finally abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast is still in regular local use: 'The Queen, Duke of Lancaster'.

[edit] Industry and commerce

Lancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of industrial activity and hence of wealth. Activities included mining and textile production (particularly cotton), though on the coast there was also fishing. Historically, the docks in Preston were an industrial port, though are now disused for commercial purposes. Lancashire was historically the location of the Mersey Ports (now on Merseyside) while Barrow-in-Furness (now in Cumbria) is famous for shipbuilding.

Today Lancashire is home to firms such as BAE Systems (which has four factories in Lancashire including Warton Aerodrome and BAE Samlesbury, major centres of production for the Eurofighter Typhoon and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter), Heinz, TVR cars, Leyland Trucks and Marconi telecoms.

[edit] Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[38] Agriculture[39] Industry[40] Services[41]
1995 13,789 344 5,461 7,984
2000 16,584 259 6,097 10,229
2003 19,206 294 6,352 12,560

[edit] Education

Lancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area also has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest (most schools) depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population, with Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Catholic secondary schools in Lancashire.

[edit] Transport

Lancashire has a well-developed transport infrastructure[42] with an extensive network of motorways covering the county. The West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London and other major cities, with stations at Preston and Lancaster. The county has many other railway stations. The county is served by Blackpool International Airport, however Manchester Airport in Greater Manchester is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport, on Merseyside is also nearby.

Heysham and Fleetwood offer ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man.[43] As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.

[edit] Demographics

The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a belt of towns running west-east along the M65: Preston, Blackburn, Accrington, Burnley, Nelson and Colne. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland and Chorley; the three formed part of the Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970. The north is generally sparsely populated, with Morecambe and Lancaster forming a small conurbation.

[edit] Settlements

Main article: List of places in Lancashire.

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Ceremonial county Administration borough/district Centre of administration Other towns, villages and settlements
Lancashire Blackburn with Darwen Borough (Unitary) Blackburn Belmont, Chapeltown, Darwen, Edgworth, Tockholes
Blackpool Borough (Unitary) Blackpool Bispham, Layton
Burnley Borough Burnley Harle Syke, Padiham, Rose Grove, Worsthorne, Cliviger.
Chorley Borough Chorley Adlington, Clayton-le-Woods, Coppull, Croston, Eccleston, Euxton, Whittle-le-Woods
Fylde Borough Lytham St Annes Freckleton, Kirkham, Warton, Wrea Green
Hyndburn Borough Accrington Altham, Church, Clayton-le-Moors, Great Harwood, Oswaldtwistle, Rishton
City of Lancaster Lancaster Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth, Heysham, Morecambe,
Pendle Borough Nelson Barnoldswick †, Barrowford, Brierfield, Colne, Earby †, Foulridge, Trawden
City of Preston Preston Barton, Broughton, Fulwood, Goosnargh, Grimsargh, Whittingham
Ribble Valley Borough Clitheroe Bolton-by-Bowland, Chipping, Hurst Green, Longridge, Read, Ribchester, Slaidburn, Whalley, Wilpshire,
Rossendale Borough Rawtenstall Bacup, Chatterton, Edenfield, Haslingden, Helmshore, Whitworth
South Ribble Borough Leyland Bamber Bridge, Farington, Longton, Lostock Hall, Penwortham, Samlesbury, Walton-le-Dale
West Lancashire District Ormskirk Appley Bridge, Aughton, Banks, Bickerstaffe, Burscough, Downholland, Great Altcar, Halsall, Lathom, Parbold, Rufford, Scarisbrick, Skelmersdale, Tarleton, Upholland
Wyre Borough Poulton-le-Fylde Churchtown, Cleveleys, Fleetwood, Garstang, Pilling, Preesall, St Michael's On Wyre, Thornton
This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at Category:Towns in Lancashire, Category:Villages in Lancashire, and Category:Parishes of Lancashire.

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Cumbria:[3][4][28][44][26][45][46]

Greater Manchester Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bolton, Bury, Chadderton, Denton, Eccles, Farnworth, Heywood, Horwich, Hindley, Leigh, Manchester, Middleton, Oldham, Prestwich, Radcliffe, Rochdale, Salford, Swinton and Pendlebury, Tyldesley, Westhoughton, Wigan
Merseyside Bootle, Crosby, Formby, Huyton, Kirkby, Liverpool, Maghull, Newton-le-Willows, Prescot, St Helens, Southport
Cumbria Barrow-in-Furness, Coniston, Dalton-in-Furness, Grange-over-Sands, Ulverston
Cheshire Warrington, Widnes
West Yorkshire Todmorden

Note: Cities are in bold
† - part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974

Boundary changes to occur before 1974 include:[46]

  • Todmorden (split between Lancashire and Yorkshire) entirely to West Riding of Yorkshire in 1889
  • Mossley (split between Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire) entirely to Lancashire in 1889
  • Stalybridge, entirely to Cheshire in 1889
  • the former county boroughs of Manchester and Warrington both extended south of the Mersey into historic Cheshire (areas such as Wythenshawe and Latchford)
  • correspondingly, the former county borough of Stockport extended north into historic Lancashire, including areas such as Reddish and the Heatons (Heaton Chapel, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor and Heaton Norris).

[edit] Sport

The newly redeveloped Deepdale stadium home of Preston North End
The newly redeveloped Deepdale stadium home of Preston North End

Lancashire is one of Britain's most successful sporting counties.[citation needed]

[edit] Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club, based at the County Ground, Old Trafford,[47] has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members Andrew Flintoff, James Anderson and Sajid Mahmood.

Historically important local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League and the Central Lancashire League, both of which were formed in 1892. These league clubs hire international professional players to play alongside their amateur players.

[edit] Football

Lancashire is the most successful of all counties in England at football - the historic county contains successful teams such as Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, Everton, Liverpool, Manchester City and Manchester United. Lancashire teams have achieved 52 out of 113 top-flight Football League / Premier League titles, 8 out of 11 English European Cups victories and 44 out of 127 FA Cups. Six of the twelve clubs which founded the Football League were from Lancashire.

Other teams based in Lancashire are:

[edit] Rugby

Several successful rugby league teams are based within the historic boundaries of Lancashire, mainly in the south of the county:

Of these only Blackpool Panthers are based within the ceremonial county.

Rugby union teams include Fylde, Orrell R.U.F.C. and Preston Grasshoppers.

[edit] Other

Lancashire has a long history of wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers. Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, William Regal and The Dynamite Kid.

[edit] Cuisine

The Ashton Memorial, Lancaster
The Ashton Memorial, Lancaster

Lancashire is widely-known for its eponymous Lancashire Hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with lamb and for Lancashire cheese, reputed to be the best toasting cheese in the world. Other traditional foods from the area include:

  • Bénédictine, 80% of the worlds Benedictine is drunk in Burnley.
  • Black peas, also known as parched peas: popular in Bolton and Preston.
  • Black Pudding: long associated with the town of Bury.
  • Bury Simnel: cross between a fruitcake and a biscuit. Eaten on Simnel or Mid-Lent Sunday.
  • Butter Cake - slice of bread and butter.
  • Clapbread: oatcake.
  • Chorley cakes: from the town of Chorley.
  • Ducks: faggots as in savoury ducks.
  • Eccles cakes: from the town of Eccles.
  • Fag Pie: pie made from chopped dried figs, sugar and lard. Associated with Blackburn and Burnley where it was the highlight of Fag Pie Sunday (Mid-Lent Sunday).
  • Fish and Chips: first fish and chip shop in northern England opened in Mossley near Oldham around 1863.[48]
  • Frog-i'-th'-'ole pudding: now known as toad in the hole.
  • Frumenty: sweet porridge. Once a popular dish at Lancashire festivals like Christmas and Easter Monday.
  • Goosnargh Cakes: Small flat shortbread biscuits with coriander or caraway seeds pressed into the biscuit before baking. Traditionally baked on feast days like Shrove Tuesday.
  • Jannock: cake or small loaf of oatmeal. Allegedly introduced to Lancashire (possibly Bolton by Flemish weavers.
  • Nettle Porridge: a common starvation diet in Lancashire in the early 1800s. Made from boiled stinging nettles with perhaps a handful of meal.
  • Ormskirk Gingerbread: local delicacy which were sold all over South Lancashire
  • Pobs, Pobbies: bread and milk.
  • Potato Hotpot, a variation of the Lancashire Hotpot without meat also known as fatherless pie.
  • Ran Dan: barley bread. Food of last resort for the poor at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century.
  • Rag Pudding: Traditional Suet Pudding filled with Minced Meat and Onions.
  • Sad Cake: A traditional cake, perhaps a variation of the more widely known Chorley cake, once common around Burnley.
  • Scouse, a type of stew popular in Liverpool (historically part of Lancashire).
  • Throdkins: a traditional breakfast food of the Fylde.

[edit] Famous Lancastrians

As one of the most populous counties Lancashire has produced many famous names. See people from Lancashire.

[edit] Catholic History

Lancashire is noted for its high percentage of Catholics, historically due in most part to immigration from Ireland. Preston has the highest proportion of Catholics in Great Britain.[citation needed] Areas above the River Ribble form part of the Diocese of Lancaster.

[edit] Places of interest

The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county:

[edit] Notes and References

  1. , Vision of Britain - Lancashire
  2. , Gibb, Robert (2005). Greater Manchester: A panorama of people and places in Manchester and its surrounding towns. Myriad, 13. ISBN 1-904736-86-6. 
  3. , a b c d George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  4. , a b c Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70
  5. , Vision of Britain - Divisions of Lancashire
  6. , Lancashire County Council - Lancashire districts
  7. , OPSI - The Lancashire (Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996
  8. , Lancashire County Council - Map of Lancashire (Unitary boundaries shown)
  9. , Government Office for the North West - Local Authorities
  10. , Opening of the new Town-Hall at Preston. The Times. September 15, 1882.
  11. , Lancashire County Council - County Councillors by Area
  12. , BUBL Information Service - The Relative Hills of Britain
  13. , Administrative (1974) County Tops
  14. , Historic County Tops
  15. , Cumbria County Council - Discover Cumbria
  16. , Her Majesty's Stationary Office, Aspects of Britain: Local Government, (1996)
  17. , a b Sylvester (1980). p. 14.
  18. , Morgan (1978). pp.269c–301c,d.
  19. , Booth, P. cited in George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  20. , Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252:

    Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm, and indeed there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.

  21. , Phillips and Phillips (2002). pp. 26–31.
  22. , Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31:

    The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary.

  23. , Booth, P. cited in George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  24. , Vision of Britain - Lancashire ancient county divisions
  25. , Berrington, E., Change in British Politics, (1984)
  26. , a b Vision of Britain - Lancashire ancient county boundaries
  27. , Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974)
  28. , a b Jones, B. et al, Politics UK, (2004)
  29. , OPSI - The Cheshire, Lancashire and Merseyside (County and Metropolitan Borough Boundaries) Order 1993
  30. , Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 4 December 1995, column 116
  31. , Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 21 April 1994, column 1146
  32. , Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Sefton, Local Government Commission for England, November 1997.
  33. , Alan Crosby, The Lancashire Dictionary, page xiii for Cumbria and page xix for Merseyside
  34. , The Duchy of Lancaster - Boundary Map
  35. , Duchy of Lancaster website
  36. , House of Commons Hansard debates for 15 June 1992 (2nd paragraph in "Duchy of Lancaster" section
  37. , High Sheriffs, The Times, March 21, 1985
  38. , Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  39. , includes hunting and forestry
  40. , includes energy and construction
  41. , includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  42. , Lancashire County Council - Local Transport Plan
  43. , Transport for Lancashire - Lancashire Inter Urban Bus and Rail Map (PDF)
  44. , Vision of Britain - Lancashire boundaries 1974
  45. , Chandler, J., Local Government Today, (2001)
  46. , a b Youngs. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume 2. Northern England.
  47. , LCCC contact details
  48. , History of fish and chips

[edit] Bibliography

  • Crosby, A. (1996). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850339324.
  • Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0197227619.
  • Morgan, P. (1978). Domesday Book Cheshire: Including Lancashire, Cumbria, and North Wales. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850331404.
  • Phillips A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (2002), A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire Community Council Publications Trust. ISBN 0904532461.
  • Sylvester, D. (1980). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series). (2nd Edition.) London and Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850333849.

[edit] External links


Coordinates: 53°48'N 2°36'W? / ?53.8, -2.6


(Source: Wikipedia)
 
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